Absence of Tensions or Conflicts
English: % of the [specify the assistance] recipients who did not experience any tensions or conflicts due to receiving the provided assistance
French: % des bénéficiaires de [préciser l'assistance] qui n'ont pas vécu de tensions ni de conflits du fait d’avoir reçu de l’assistance
Portuguese: % dos destinatários [especificar a assistência] que não experimentaram quaisquer tensões ou conflitos devido ao facto de beneficiarem da assistência prestada
Czech: % příjemců [upřesněte pomoc], kteří nezažili žádné napětí nebo konflikty kvůli přijetí poskytnuté pomoci
What is its purpose?
The indicator measures the proportion of target group members who did not experience conflict, disagreements, tensions or violence (physical, verbal, psychological, emotional or other) related to them receiving the provided assistance. It is an important process indicator helping aid agencies identify and mitigate against the potentially negative consequences of their assistance.
How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data
Collect the following data by conducting individual interviews with a representative sample of the aid recipients:
RECOMMENDED SURVEY QUESTIONS (Q) AND POSSIBLE ANSWERS (A)
Q1: Have you experienced in your household any tensions or conflicts related to you receiving or using [specify the assistance]?
A1: yes / no / did not respond
Q2: Have you experienced in the area where you live any tensions or conflicts related to you receiving or using [specify the assistance]?
A2: yes / no / did not respond
To calculate the indicator’s value, divide the number of respondents who did not experience tension / conflict (either at home or in the area where they live) by the total number of interviewed respondents (exclude those who did not respond). Multiply the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage.
Disaggregate the data by gender, age group, persons with a disability, and whether the tension / conflict was (not) experienced at home or in the community.
1) When translating the terms “tensions or conflicts”, make sure that it is clear that these can be at physical and emotional / psychological levels as well as at verbal levels.
2) In addition to providing the indicator value, report separately on the percentage of people who did not experience conflicts a) at home; and b) in the community.
3) If you are conducting aid distributions in several phases (or in several locations), do not wait to do the interviews until all distributions are over. Starting with the PDM immediately after the first phase / location will help you identify potential issues and address them in the remaining distributions/activities.
4) If the aid recipients are primarily men (as the heads of households), it is important that such an assessment is also conducted among female members of the household. This can be done by either using a representative survey or conducting (less resource-demanding) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with randomly selected female relatives of the aid recipients.
5) Consider crosschecking the findings with information provided by other stakeholders who might have experienced conflicts, such as local authorities, sellers, or non-beneficiaries.
6) In some contexts, your enumerators might encounter people who experienced physical or sexual violence related to accessing or using the provided assistance. Collecting information about such incidents is sensitive and poses risks to the respondent as well as to the enumerator. Furthermore, people might find it difficult or not be willing to report on the incidence of violence. As a very minimum, adopt the following measures:
- read and apply the Ethical and Safety Guidelines for Implementing the DHS Domestic Violence Module (see attached below)
- ensure that the enumerators are familiar with and carry with them the Constant Companion listing 1) the main DOs and DON’Ts and 2) contacts for relevant service providers that can provide support to people who experienced violence (see bottom of this site)
- ensure that all enumerators were trained in the principles of gender-sensitive interviewing and are not from the same communities as the interviewees
- ensure that teams are gender balanced and that, whenever possible, women/girls are interviewed by female enumerators
- instruct the enumerators to ensure that the interviews are conducted in a place where no one else can hear or observe the respondent (if the enumerators cannot ensure complete privacy, they should skip this part and move to less sensitive parts of the questionnaire)
- instruct the enumerators to reassure the respondent about the confidentiality of their answers
- train the enumerators to quickly switch the topic if during the interview someone comes near the respondent
- train the enumerators in how to close the topic and move to the next part of your survey in a sensitive manner
- ensure that there is emotional support available to the enumerators
7) It is important that the enumerators have the same and correct understanding of what “tension” and “conflict” mean and are able to explain it to the respondents, if required. This must be done in a clear and neutral way, so that it does not influence the respondent’s answer.