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Reading With Fluency and Comprehension

Indicator Phrasing

% of students who by the end of Grade 2 can read with fluency and comprehension
See indicator in other languages

Indicator Phrasing

English: % of students who by the end of Grade 2 can read with fluency and comprehension

French: % d'élèves qui à la fin de la seconde année lisent avec aisance et compréhension

Portuguese: % de estudantes que no final do 2º ano conseguem ler com fluência e compreensão

Czech: % studentů, kteří na konci druhého ročníku čtou ve vyučovacím jazyce plynule a s porozuměním

What is its purpose?

The ability to read and understand simple text is one of the most fundamental skills. Yet in many countries the majority of students do not understand the meaning of the texts they read even after years of schooling. This outcome level indicator measures the proportion of school children who, after 2 years of schooling, are able to read with fluency and comprehension. It also serves as an indicator of the education system's effectiveness.

How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data

Use Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) to collect data for this indicator. EGRA is an internationally recognized RTI/USAID-developed tool for measuring reading skills in young students:


  > EGRA is a brief but thorough oral assessment administered individually to randomly selected students that accurately evaluates students’ knowledge of foundational reading. 


  > The assessment is used during the program's baseline stage for assessing children's foundational reading levels. This provides a measure of how many children are reading at the appropriate grade level. The same test is administered at the end (final evaluation) to assess the impact of the programme. Students tested at the onset of an intervention and subsequent to the instructional intervention would be expected to demonstrate improvement over time.


  > At each testing, the assessment is undertaken with a sample of children currently at the end of Grade 2 (or early Grade 3) – not with the same children.


  > The tool is administered, by a trained enumerator, to each child individually. It takes about 10 minutes to complete. The details of the procedure and the forms can be found in EGRA Field Guide. The benchmark of how many words a student needs to read within 60 seconds has to be set depending on the given language, because orthographies and other factors influence the rate of fluency acquisition - do not automatically use the 45 words per minute standard provided in the Field Guide. For more guidance on setting the benchmark, read EGRA Benchmarks and Standards Research Report (see below). 


   > Sample size and selection: To obtain representative data for your target school, you will need to randomly select students to take part in the assessment. Read the details on sampling in EGRA Field Guide and consult your Education and/or M&E Advisor.


  > The enumerators can either record the results on paper forms or electronically in tablets.

Disaggregate by

Disaggregate the data by gender and specific vulnerable groups, such as minorities or children with disability.

Important Comments

1) EGRA is fully dependent on enumerators' skills. Plan for 2-day practical training for enumerators to ensure data consistency.


2) The indicator is measured “by the end of grade 2”. This means that the assessment must be timed correctly to be at the end of Grade 2 or at the beginning of Grade 3, depending on the timing chosen for the assessment. Children will need to have had two years of learning, or as close as possible.


3) In new contexts, the pre-testing and contextualisation are necessary. The tool should be adjusted and tested to suit the local language and culture.


4) You might also want to consider using Early Grade Mathematics Assessment for measuring students’ numeracy skills with an emphasis on numbers and operations. 


Access Additional Guidance

This guidance was prepared by People in Need ©

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