Positive Discipline Practices
English: number or % of (trained) teachers in target schools using positive discipline practices in their lessons
French: nombre ou % d’enseignants (formés) dans les écoles cibles qui utilisent des pratiques disciplinaires positives dans leurs leçons
Portuguese: numero ou % de professores (formados) em escolas-alvo que usam práticas positivas de disciplina nas suas aulas
Czech: počet nebo % (vyškolených) učitelů v podpořených školách, kteří používají pozitivní disciplínu
What is its purpose?
There will always be cases of misbehaving children in school. To create a safe and protective learning environment for children the teachers have to promote behaviour management and positive discipline. This indicator assesses to what extent the teachers in supported schools perform positive discipline in their lessons.
How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data
1) Collect the data through classroom observation by using a checklist prepared in advance and monitoring the most relevant teachers' practices, such as:
> the teacher sets clear expectations for student behaviour (classroom rules, expectations for each activity)
> the teacher uses routines and procedures
> the teacher moves around the room to monitor student behaviour and interactions
> the teacher uses positive words and praises students’ good behaviour, their work, and their improvements
> the teacher positively and patiently redirects students’ negative behaviour
> the teacher models how to be respectful and courteous to others in class
> the teacher treats all children equally regardless of gender, nationality, language, etc. (calling on students equally, avoiding disrespectful comments, etc.)
> students treat each other with courtesy and respect
2) The observer shall record the extent to which each teacher's behaviour has been observed, e.g. using a scale: observed - partly observed - not observed. Therefore, each item of the checklist has to be filled in, leaving no blank fields in the checklist. In addition, a description of specific examples of each behaviour should be noted in a separate column of the checklist.
3) Always determine in the checklist the minimum number (or types) of teaching methods the teacher needs to perform in order to be recorded as "using positive discipline practices".
4) To calculate the indicator's value, divide the number of teachers following the minimum number (or types) of teaching methods by the total number of observed teachers. Multiply the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage.
Disaggregate the data by gender and schools where the teachers work.
1) Positive discipline is a structured approach to class behaviour management. It requires establishing clear limits and rules and guides students to take responsibility to stay within these limits, or learn how to positively remedy the situation when they don't. The key principle is reinforcing the good behaviours and redirecting the negative ones, i.e. being kind and firm.
2) This indicator is prone to significant biases as it is based on the judgement of individual class observers. Use the following tips to ensure the consistency and validity of the results:
> Always validate the tools and criteria in new contexts: Test the checklist in several schools and adjust it before roll out in the new area.
> Describe standardized criteria for determining observed/ not-observed teacher practices and share it with the observers.
> Ensure consistency across observers through intensive observer training and frequent supervision. Use collective real-life class observation and/or class observation role play as an integral part of the observer training.
> If possible, rotate the observers across the monitored areas/schools/teachers so that any observer bias is distributed between various respondents and doesn’t influence the results of only one area/ school/ teacher.
> Have a standardized class observation procedure, incl. selection of sample schools and classes for observation, pre-observation interview, in-class observation, post-observation session (feedback provision and individual follow up) and use of the observation data (observation database).