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Inclusive and Learner Centred Teaching Methodologies

Indicator Phrasing

% of teachers whose training included methods for how to engage all students equally and in a participatory way
See indicator in other languages

Indicator Phrasing

English: % of teachers whose training included methods for how to engage all students equally and in a participatory way

French: % d’enseignants dont la formation comprenait des méthodes permettant d’impliquer tous les élèves de manière égale et participative

Spanish: % de profesores cuya formación incluía métodos sobre cómo implicar a todos los alumnos por igual y de forma participativa

Portuguese: % de professores/as cuja formação incluía métodos para envolver todos os estudantes de forma igual e participativa

Czech: % učitelů, jejichž školení zahrnovalo metody, jak zapojit všechny žáky rovnoměrně a participativně

What is its purpose?

Children learn best when they are actively engaged in learning, are interested in the topic and can relate the content to something they know. This indicator measures the extent to which teachers have been trained on inclusive principles and approaches, as well as learner centred teaching methodologies. This indicator can be extended to assess the extent to which teachers apply learner-centred methods of teaching and actively involve all children.

How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data

To measure this indicator:

  1. Determine the total number of teachers targeted (i.e. the total number of teachers participating in training provided through the action). This can be gathered from project documents and/or school/learning space- or area-based education authorities.
  2. Determine whether the training included adequate information on inclusion and participation. To do this, review the training content and learning objectives. Refer to Important Comments below for additional guidance.
  3. Then, based on whether the criteria above have been met, determine the number of teachers who have been trained on inclusion and participatory teaching methods (i.e. how to engage all children equally and in participatory way). This information can be gathered from project level data (i.e. training attendance forms), school or learning space management or local education authorities.
  4. To calculate the percentage, divide the number of teachers trained on learner-centred and inclusive teaching methods by the total number of teachers targeted and multiply the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage.


To measure the (optional) second part of this indicator related to application of teacher knowledge and skills, use the following steps:

  1. Collect the data through classroom observation by using a checklist, such as the INEE TiCC Sample Classroom Observation Form prepared in advance and monitoring the most relevant teachers' practices.
  2. Determine in the checklist the minimum number (or types) of teaching methods the teacher needs to perform in order to be recorded as "using learner-centred and inclusive teaching methods".
  3. The observer shall record the extent to which each teacher's behaviour has been observed, e.g. using a scale: observed - partly observed - not observed. Therefore, each item of the checklist has to be filled in, leaving no blank fields in the checklist. In addition, specific examples of each behaviour should be noted in a separate column of the checklist.
  4. Calculate the indicator's value by dividing the number of teachers using learner-centred and inclusive teaching methods by the total number of observed teachers and multiplying the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage.

Disaggregate by

Disaggregation of the data can be done by gender and/or disability of the teachers and education level and/or the type of school or learning space (formal versus non-formal) where the teachers work.

Disaggregation of data by disability type should use the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning (or for actions with specialised responses to disabilities use the complete WG/UNICEF Child Functioning Module) or equivalent.

Important Comments

1) This is INEE Indicator 3.11.


2) If a large number of teachers are supported through the project/programme, and observation of all personnel is not possible, observe a representative sample of supported teachers.


3) When determining whether a training includes relevant and meaningful content on participation and inclusion, review the training content and Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives of a relevant training could include some or all of the following - taken from the INEE Teachers in Crisis Contexts (TICC) training materials:

By the end of the training, teachers should be able to:

  • Explain the importance of inclusive education
  • Describe obstacles that vulnerable children face
  • Identify strategies to create an inclusive classroom
  • Explain why it is important to use a range of active teaching strategies
  • Confidently use a range of active teaching strategies
  • Adapt active teaching strategies for their own classrooms
  • Describe the different stages of child development and different learning styles
  • Explain the implications of these differences for classroom management, instruction and assessment
  • Practice differentiation strategies


4) The optional second part of this indicator is prone to significant biases as it is based on the judgement of individual class observers. Use the following tips to ensure the consistency and validity of the results:

  • Always validate the tools and criteria in a new context: Test the checklist in several schools or learning spaces and adjust it before rolling out in the new area.
  • Describe standardized criteria for determining observed/ not-observed teacher practices and share it with the observers.
  • Ensure consistency between observers through intensive observer training and frequent supervision. Use collective real-life class observation and/or class observation role play as an integral part of the observer training.
  • If possible, rotate the observers across the monitored areas/ schools or learning space/ teachers so that any observer bias is distributed between various respondents and doesn’t influence the results of only one area/ school or learning space / teacher.
  • Have a standardized class observation procedure, incl. selection of sample schools or learning space and classes for observation, pre-observation interview, in-class observation, post-observation session (feedback provision and individual follow up) and use of the observation data (observation database).
  • The main guidance on this indicator is designed to measure the proportion of targeted teachers whose training included specified competencies. If the purpose of the indicator is to gain a broader understanding of teacher training, it is also possible to use this indicator to measure the proportion of all teachers in the area – targeted by the action or not – whose training included these competencies. To do this, use the total number of teachers in the assessed school/learning space/community/target area as your denominator (rather than the number of teachers targeted by the project). This data can be requested from school or learning space management or the relevant education authorities.


5) Related indicators:


        - 3.9 % of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs

        - 3.12 Appropriateness of teaching methods to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners


        - KRI: Number of teachers and other education personnel showing increased knowledge and skills to address protection needs of girls and boys

        - KRI: Number of teachers and other education personnel showing increased knowledge and teaching skills to address children's learning needs

        - KRI: Number of learning spaces supported to improve equity of access and/or learning opportunities for marginalised and vulnerable boys and girls

     Child Protection Minimum Standards (CPMS)

        - 23.2.2 % of education staff who demonstrate knowledge of participatory, inclusive, positive discipline and gender-sensitive approaches


        - Extent to which teaching and learning practices are active and student centred


        - % of [specify the target group] with the desired knowledge / skills of [specify the topic] (see Acquired Knowledge / Skills indicator)

This guidance was prepared by People in Need ©

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