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Appropriateness of Teaching Methods and Content

Indicator Phrasing

appropriateness of teaching methods [and content] to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners
See indicator in other languages

Indicator Phrasing

English: appropriateness of teaching methods [and content] to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners

French: adéquation des méthodes d’enseignement à l’âge, au niveau de développement, à la langue, à la culture, aux capacités et aux besoins des apprenants

Spanish: adecuación de los métodos de enseñanza [y de los contenidos] a la edad, el nivel de desarrollo, la lengua, la cultura, las capacidades y las necesidades de los alumnos

Portuguese: adequação dos métodos de ensino à idade, nível de desenvolvimento, língua, cultura, capacidades e necessidades dos alunos/as

Czech: přiměřenost výukových metod [a obsahu] věku, vývojové úrovni, jazyku, kultuře, schopnostem a potřebám žáků

What is its purpose?

Children are most engaged when their learning reflects a world that they know and care about. Linking school or learning space curriculum to children’s lives should be among teachers' key skills. This indicator assesses to what extent the teachers or facilitators in supported schools or learning spaces use locally relevant content and appropriate teaching methods in their lessons.

How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data

1) Collect data through classroom observation by using a class observation checklist prepared in advance (such as INEE’s TiCC Sample Classroom Observation Form). The main focus of the checklist should be on whether the teacher’s methods are appropriate to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners. The checklist should also focus on whether the learning content is locally relevant, for example, by ascertaining whether the teacher:

  • asks questions about children’s lives, their opinions, and their experiences
  • connects the lesson content to the everyday life of children
  • uses local resources as instructional materials
  • uses examples/problems/stories from the local community or region to demonstrate the lesson content.

2) Determine in the checklist the minimum number (or types) of teaching methods the teacher needs to perform in order to be recorded as “using appropriate teaching methods” and "demonstrating relevant learning content in their lesson".


3) The observer records the extent to which each teacher's behaviour has been observed, e.g. using a scale: observed - partly observed - not observed. Therefore, each item of the checklist has to be filled in, leaving no blank fields in the checklist. In addition, specific examples of each behaviour should be noted in a separate column of the checklist. 


4) Calculate the indicator's value by dividing the number of teachers that demonstrate appropriate teaching methods and relevant learning content in their lessons by the total number of observed teachers and multiplying the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage.

Important Comments

1) This is INEE Indicator 3.12.

2) If a large number of teachers are supported through the project/programme, and observation of all personnel is not possible, observe a representative sample of supported teachers.

3) It can be difficult for teachers to display a full range of professional skills during one classroom observation. Ideally multiple observations will take place over a period of time so that the teacher has the opportunity to display the full range of their skills. Observation findings should be compiled.

4) Data collected through direct observations can be triangulated through other means, for example teacher/child/mentor surveys, pre-post training assessments, interviews/surveys with school or learning space community members.

5) Use the following tips to ensure the consistency and validity of the results and reduce the observer subjectivity bias.

  • Observation checklists should be based on competencies that teachers have been trained on. This will allow for the measurement of the degree to which teachers are using the knowledge and skills from the training in practice.
  • Always validate the tools and criteria in a new context: Test the checklist in several schools or learning spaces and adjust it before rolling out in the new area.
  • Describe standardized criteria for determining observed/ not-observed teacher practices and share it with the observers.
  • Ensure consistency among observers through intensive observer training and frequent supervision. Use collective real-life class observation and/or class observation role play as an integral part of the observer training.
  • If possible, rotate the observers across the monitored areas/ schools or learning spaces/ teachers so that any observer bias is distributed between various respondents and doesn’t influence the results of only one area/ school or learning space / teacher.
  • Have a standardized class observation procedure, including selection of sample schools or learning spaces and classes for observation, pre-observation interview, in-class observation, post-observation session (feedback provision and individual follow up) and use of the observation data (observation database).


6) Related indicators:


       - 3.13 % of teachers who use structures or routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively (see Classroom Management indicator)


       - KRI: Number of teachers/ education personnel showing increased knowledge and teaching skills to address children’s learning needs


       - % of [specify the target group] with the desired knowledge / skills of [specify the topic] (see Acquired Knowledge / Skills indicator)

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This guidance was prepared by People in Need ©

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