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Classroom Management

Indicator Phrasing

% of teachers who use structures or routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively
See indicator in other languages

Indicator Phrasing

English: % of teachers who use structures or routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively

French: % d’enseignants qui utilisent des structures ou des routines pour gérer plus efficacement les interactions en classe

Spanish: % de profesores que utilizan estructuras o rutinas para gestionar más eficazmente las interacciones en clase

Portuguese: % de professores/as que utilizam estruturas ou rotinas para gerir mais eficazmente as interações na sala de aula

Czech: % učitelů, kteří používají struktury nebo rutiny k zajištění efektivnějších interakcí ve třídě

What is its purpose?

This indicator assesses the extent to which the teachers/facilitators in supported schools or learning spaces apply structures and routines to actively and effectively manage the classroom. It can be used at a single point in time to gain an understanding of the general situation, or to measure progress – due to a related teacher training or professional development opportunity – over a pre-determined period of time (for example, between a project’s baseline and endline).

How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data

1) Determine the total number of teachers targeted. Depending on the purpose of the indicator, this can be (a) the number of teachers participating in training related to classroom management, or (b) the total number of teachers in the school/learning space/area, if not all teachers are targeted by the said training. This information can be gathered from project documents and/or school/learning space- or area-based education authorities.


2) Collect the data through classroom observation by using a checklist prepared in advance (see this sample TiCC Sample Classroom Observation Form) and monitoring the most relevant teachers' practices, such as: the teacher’s ability to plan and manage time appropriately, effectively manage the classroom, use a variety of pedagogical approaches and differentiate learning.


3) Determine the minimum number (or types) of structures or routines the teacher needs to perform in order to be recorded as "using structures and routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively".


4) If making a one-off assessment of teaching practices, use the observation form to record relevant teaching practices. Each item of the observation form must be filled in (marked on a scale, such as ‘observed’, ‘partly observed’ or ‘not observed’), leaving no blank fields. Record the number of teachers who use (either ‘observed’ or ‘partly observed’) the minimum number of structures or routines (as determined above) during their class. In addition, specific examples of each behaviour should be noted in a separate column of the form.


5) If measuring progress over time, establish a baseline using the observation form to record the relevant teaching practices before the training takes place (following the above guidance). Then, use the observation form again, after the training has been provided to record the number of teachers observed to be using structures and routines to manage their classes following the training. This data can be collected at a single point in time or at regular intervals following the training. It is recommended to conduct multiple observations, as it is unlikely that an individual teacher will be able to demonstrate a large range of learned skills during one class.


6) To calculate the percentage, divide the number of teachers using structures and routines by the total number of targeted teachers and multiplying the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage.

Disaggregate by

Disaggregation of the data can be done by gender and/or disability of the teachers and the education level and/or type of school or learning space (formal versus non-formal) where the teachers work.


Disaggregation of data by disability type should use the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning (or for actions with specialised responses to disabilities use the complete WG/UNICEF Child Functioning Module) or equivalent.

Important Comments

1) This is INEE Indicator 3.13.


2) If a large number of teachers are supported through the project / programme, and observation of all personnel is not possible, observe a representative sample of supported teachers.


3) This indicator is prone to significant biases as it is based on the judgement of individual class observers. Use the following tips to ensure the consistency and validity of the results:

  • Always validate the tools and criteria in a new context: Test the checklist in several schools or learning spaces and adjust it before rolling out in the new area.
  • Describe standardized criteria for determining observed/ not-observed teacher practices and share it with the observers.
  • Ensure consistency between observers through intensive observer training and frequent supervision. Use collective real-life class observation and/or class observation role play as an integral part of the observer training.
  • If possible, rotate the observers across the monitored areas/ schools or learning spaces/ teachers so that any observer bias is distributed between various respondents and doesn’t influence the results of only one area/ school or learning space / teacher.
  • Have a standardized class observation procedure, incl. selection of sample schools or learning spaces and classes for observation, pre-observation interview, in-class observation, post-observation session (feedback provision and individual follow up) and use of the observation data (observation database).

4) This indicator can also be adapted to measure different teacher skills, for example: the number or percentage of (trained) teachers in target schools or learning spaces using positive discipline practices in their lessons.


5) Related indicators:


       - 3.12 Appropriateness of teaching methods to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners (see indicator guidance)


       - KRI: Number of teachers and other education personnel showing increased knowledge and skills to address the protection needs of girls and boys

       - KRI: Number of teachers and other education personnel showing increased knowledge and teaching skills to address children's learning needs


       - % of [specify the target group] with the desired knowledge / skills of [specify the topic] (see Acquired Knowledge / Skills indicator)

This guidance was prepared by People in Need ©

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