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CBA-related Conflicts / Tensions

Indicator Phrasing

% of the [specify: voucher / cash / …] recipients who reported experiencing tensions or conflicts due to the provided assistance
See indicator in other languages

Indicator Phrasing

English: % of the [specify: voucher / cash / …] recipients who reported experiencing tensions or conflicts due to the provided assistance

French: % de bénéficiaires de [spécifiez: bons / espèces / …] déclarant avoir fait face à des tensions ou conflits à cause de l’assistance fournie

Portuguese: % dos/as beneficiários/as de [especificar: vouchers / dinheiro] que declararam ter enfrentado tensões ou conflitos devido à assistência prestada

Czech: % příjemců [určete: poukázek / hotovosti / …], které obdržení finanční pomoci vystavilo napjatým situacím nebo konfliktům

What is its purpose?

The indicator measures the proportion of people who experienced conflicts (physical, verbal or other) or tensions related to them receiving cash-based assistance (CBA). It is an important process indicator helping aid agencies identify and mitigate certain negative consequences of their assistance.

How to Collect and Analyse the Required Data

Collect the following data by conducting individual PDM interviews with a representative sample of the CBA recipients:



Q1: Have you experienced any tensions or conflicts in your household related to you receiving or using [specify the modality]?

A1: yes / no / did not respond


Q2: Have you experienced in the area where you live any tensions or conflicts related to you receiving or using [specify the modality]?

A2: yes / no / did not respond


If any of the responses is YES, consider asking for additional details.



To calculate the indicator’s value, divide the number of respondents who experienced tension / conflict (either at home or in the area where they live) by the total number of interviewed respondents (exclude those who did not respond). Multiply the result by 100 to convert it to a percentage. 

Disaggregate by

Disaggregate the data by gender, age group, and whether the tension/conflict was experienced at home or in the community.

Important Comments

1) In addition to providing the indicator value, report separately on the percentage of people who experienced conflicts a) at home; and b) in the community.


2) If you conduct cash transfers / voucher distributions in several phases (or in several locations), do not wait to conduct the post-distribution monitoring until all distributions are over. Starting with the monitoring immediately after the first phase / location will help you identify potential issues and address them in the remaining distributions. 


3) If the CBA recipients are primarily men (as the heads of households), it is important that such an assessment is also conducted among female members of the household. This can be done by either using a representative survey or conducting (less resource-demanding) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with randomly selected female relatives of the CBA recipients.


4) Consider crosschecking the findings with the information provided by other stakeholders who might have experienced conflicts, such as local authorities, sellers, or non-beneficiaries.


5) The indicator can also be phrased in positive terms such as “% of the [specify: voucher / cash] recipients who did not report experiencing any tensions or conflicts due to the provided assistance”.


6) In some contexts, your enumerators might encounter people who experienced physical or sexual violence related to accessing or using the provided assistance. Collecting information about such incidents is sensitive and poses risks to the respondent as well as to the enumerator. Furthermore, people might find it difficult or not be willing to report on the incidence of violence. As a very minimum, adopt the following measures:

   - read and apply the Ethical and Safety Guidelines for Implementing the DHS Domestic Violence Module (see attached below)

   - ensure that the enumerators are familiar with and carry with them Constant Companion listing 1) the main DOs and DON’Ts and 2) contacts for relevant service providers that can provide support to people who experienced violence (see at the bottom of this site)

   - ensure that all enumerators were trained in the principles of gender-sensitive interviewing and are not from the same communities as the interviewees

   - instruct the enumerators to ensure that the interviews are conducted in a place where no one else can hear or observe the respondent (if the enumerators cannot ensure complete privacy, they should skip this part and move to less sensitive parts of the questionnaire)

   - instruct the enumerators to re-assure the respondent about the confidentiality of their answers

   - train the enumerators to quickly switch the topic if during the interview someone comes near the respondent

   - train the enumerators on how to close the topic and move to the next part of your survey in a sensitive manner

   - ensure that there is emotional support available to the enumerators


This guidance was prepared by People in Need ©

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